Heutzutage sind die Yakuza ein Tabu, über das man in Japan nicht gerne spricht. Viele Japaner sehen sie als einen Schandfleck auf der stolzen. Auch die Unterwelt von Japan beherbergt eine Mafia: Die Yakuza. Die japanische Mafia erklären wir Ihnen einfach in diesem Praxistipp. HERBERT, Yakuza im Wandel, 18, 26, 28, 30, 32; DERS., Japan nach Sonnenuntergang, ; KAWAMURA, Gesellschaftliche Bedingungen organisierter.
Die Yakuza – Portrait einer einst mächtigen OrganisationHeutzutage sind die Yakuza ein Tabu, über das man in Japan nicht gerne spricht. Viele Japaner sehen sie als einen Schandfleck auf der stolzen. Mord mit Sturmgewehr schockiert Japan. Ein japanischer Yakuza-Führer wird in einem Bandenkrieg niedergemäht. Es ist ein rarer Fall in einem. Seit ist in Japan das sichtbare Bekenntnis zu einem kumi strafbar, was die modernen Yakuza in einigen Teilen des Landes immer mehr zur Arbeit im.
Yakuza Japan Navigation menu VideoConfessions of Ex-Yakuza Leader [ENG CC] Namespaces Lotto.At 6 Aus 45 Talk. Core business activities such as merchandising, loan sharking or management of gambling houses are typically managed by non-Yakuza members who pay protection fees for their activities. Expert At The Card Table to content Like actor Saburo Kitajima, who talked the talk, Japan's economic yakuza clean up pretty good. This adds pressure to the group from the U. Prospective Yakuza come from all walks of life.
The first of those groups were the tekiya , wandering peddlers who traveled from village to village, selling low-quality goods at festivals and markets.
Many tekiya belonged to the burakumin social class, a group of outcasts or "non-humans," which was actually below the four-tiered Japanese feudal social structure.
In the early s, the tekiya began to organize themselves into tight-knit groups under the leadership of bosses and underbosses.
Reinforced by fugitives from the higher classes, the tekiya started to participate in typical organized crime activities such as turf wars and protection rackets.
In a tradition that continues to this day, tekiya often served as security during Shinto festivals, and also allocated stalls in the associated fairs in return for protection money.
Between and , the shogun's government sought to calm gang wars between different groups of tekiya and reduce the amount of fraud they practiced by appointing oyabun, or officially sanctioned bosses.
The oyabun was allowed to use a surname and to carry a sword, an honor previously allowed only to samurai. The second group that gave rise to the yakuza was the bakuto , or gamblers.
Gambling was strictly forbidden during Tokugawa times and remains illegal in Japan to this day. The bakuto took to the highways, fleecing unsuspecting marks with dice games or with hanafuda card games.
These tattoos, known as irezumi in Japan, are still often "hand-poked", that is, the ink is inserted beneath the skin using non-electrical, hand-made and handheld tools with needles of sharpened bamboo or steel.
The procedure is expensive, painful, and can take years to complete. When Yakuza members play Oicho-Kabu cards with each other, they often remove their shirts or open them up and drape them around their waists.
This enables them to display their full-body tattoos to each other. This is one of the few times that Yakuza members display their tattoos to others, as they normally keep them concealed in public with long-sleeved and high-necked shirts.
When new members join, they are often required to remove their trousers as well and reveal any lower body tattoos. Although Yakuza membership has declined since the implementation of the Anti- Boryokudan Act in , there are still approximately 28, active Yakuza members in Japan as of The Yamaguchi family is successful to the point where its name has become synonymous with Japanese organized crime in many parts of Asia outside Japan.
Many Chinese or Korean persons who do not know the name "Yakuza" would know the name "Yamaguchi-gumi", which is frequently portrayed in gangster films.
Under the Organized Crime Countermeasures Law, the Prefectural Public Safety Commissions have registered 24 syndicates as the designated boryokudan groups.
Fukuoka Prefecture has the largest number of designated boryokudan groups among all of the prefectures, at 5; the Kudo-kai , the Taishu-kai , the Fukuhaku-kai , the Dojin-kai and the Namikawa-kai.
Designated boryokudan groups are usually large organizations mostly formed before World War II , some before the Meiji Restoration of the 19th century ; however, there are some exceptions such as the Namikawa-kai , which, with its blatant armed conflicts with the Dojin-kai , was registered only two years after its formation.
Yakuza are regarded as semi-legitimate organizations. For example, immediately after the Kobe earthquake , the Yamaguchi-gumi , whose headquarters are in Kobe , mobilized itself to provide disaster relief services including the use of a helicopter , and this was widely reported by the media as a contrast to the much slower response by the Japanese government.
The yakuza and its affiliated gangs control drug trafficking in Japan, especially methamphetamine. Some Yakuza groups are known to deal extensively in human trafficking.
Yakuza trick girls from impoverished villages into coming to Japan, where they are promised respectable jobs with good wages.
Instead, they are forced into becoming sex workers and strippers. In essence, this is a specialized form of protection racket. Instead of harassing small businesses, the Yakuza harass a stockholders' meeting of a larger corporation.
They simply scare the ordinary stockholder with the presence of Yakuza operatives, who obtain the right to attend the meeting by making a small purchase of stock.
Yakuza also have ties to the Japanese realty market and banking, through jiageya. Jiageya specialize in inducing holders of small real estate to sell their property so that estate companies can carry out much larger development plans.
Japan's bubble economy of the s is often blamed on real estate speculation by banking subsidiaries. After the collapse of the Japanese property bubble, a manager of a major bank in Nagoya was assassinated, and much speculation ensued about the banking industry's indirect connection to the Japanese underworld.
Yakuza have been known to make large investments in legitimate, mainstream companies. As a matter of principle, theft is not recognised as a legitimate activity of Yakuza.
This is in line with the idea that their activities are semi-open; theft by definition would be a covert activity. More importantly, such an act would be considered a trespass by the community.
Also, Yakuza usually do not conduct the actual business operation by themselves. Core business activities such as merchandising, loan sharking or management of gambling houses are typically managed by non-Yakuza members who pay protection fees for their activities.
There is much evidence of Yakuza involvement in international crime. There are many tattooed Yakuza members imprisoned in various Asian prisons for such crimes as drug trafficking and arms smuggling.
In , one verified Yakuza member was caught smuggling 4 kilograms 8. Because of their history as a legitimate feudal organization and their connection to the Japanese political system through the uyoku dantai extreme right-wing political groups , Yakuza are somewhat a part of the Japanese establishment, with six fan magazines reporting on their activities.
The police stepped in and forced the Yakuza bosses on both sides to declare a truce in public. At various times, people in Japanese cities have launched anti-Yakuza campaigns with mixed and varied success.
In March , the Japanese government passed the Act for Prevention of Unlawful Activities by Criminal Gang Members , which made traditional racketeering much more difficult.
Beginning in , led by agency chief Takaharu Ando , Japanese police began to crack down on the gangs. Kodo-kai chief Kiyoshi Takayama was arrested in late In December , police arrested Yamaguchi-gumi's alleged number three leader, Tadashi Irie.
According to the media, encouraged by tougher anti-Yakuza laws and legislation, local governments and construction companies have begun to shun or ban Yakuza activities or involvement in their communities or construction projects.
They easily fit into the local population, since many tourists from Japan and other Asian countries visit the islands on a regular basis, and there is a large population of residents who are of full or partial Japanese descent.
They also work with local gangs, funneling Japanese tourists to gambling parlors and brothels. In California, the Yakuza have made alliances with local Korean gangs as well as Chinese triads.
They allied with Vietnamese gangs to use them as muscle, as they had potential to become extremely violent as needed.
The Yakuza saw their potential following the constant Vietnamese cafe shoot-outs and home invasion burglaries throughout the s and early s.
In New York City, they appear to collect finder's fees from Russian, Irish and Italian gang members and businessmen for guiding Japanese tourists to gambling establishments, both legal and illegal.
This was done without prior consultation of the NPA. The yakuza are lawful criminals. Yakuza are channeling their efforts differently in the modern era.
They are putting less pressure on the commission of violent offenses, and the provision of illegal services such as gambling, drugs, prostitution, to control now legitimate businesses such as construction companies, restaurants, bars, nightclubs, and finance companies.
Adelstein 66 1 , contributes to this discussion by claiming, the yakuza are identified under the idea that power is in numbers. The main difference from the historical to the modern yakuza man is that they now have gone international.
Yakuza have capital, the manpower, and the information network. They are expanding into every industry where money is to be made.
The yakuza used to work just in Japan. After World War 2, the yakuza were far too nationalistic to be involved with international business. Now though, they are working with Chinese organized crime groups, expanding into casinos in the Philippines and Macau, and setting up their front companies in Singapore and the Cayman Islands.
They are hiring bilingual henchmen as they continue to manipulate the Japanese stock markets from overseas accounts, and are now working in association with foreign banks.
To continue upon the realm of policing, there has been no serious attempt to break up the yakuza gang by officials.
As of 15 years ago, the activities of the yakuza have become more of a burden for the Japanese police and the criminal justice system. It brings into question what laws are being made against them?
What efforts are officials making? The law is what society trusts, it is the legal standard. The yakuza have found a way to be so public and so dense, that the government had to think of and are still thinking of solutions to break them up.
Yakuza groups pose an enormous threat to civil affairs and corporate transactions. They bring in their illegitimate practices to the corporate sphere.
Adelstein states that he thinks what happened in Japan, when the government introduced the initiative to get hard on antimob legislation in , is that the initial crackdowns failed 66 1 , The legislation simply encouraged the yakuza to go underground.
This forced them to set up front companies that hide their activities rather than simply work out in the open.
Their collection of protection money, doing small-scale loan-sharking, or running gambling dens, was now more discrete. The yakuza kept their presence in society, they just created ways to hide their activities not themselves.
The weak laws Japan put in place rather than dismantling the yakuza, simply pushed them into new business arenas.
An attempt at takedown was the law of Organized Crime Countermeasures Act, which made it legal for victims of yakuza crime to sue senior bosses for the crimes of a subordination.
Two head bosses Shinobu and Tadamasa were tried for murder under this law. The bosses ended up paying the family of the deceased and continued to carry out their actions.
More than 20, cases in which violent interventions in civil disputes were attributed to organized crime members Tonry, M. The new laws on crime involve police raids on some offices of major yakuza organizations.
An estimate of an overall yearly income of 7 trillion yen is provided by American economists. New ruling also implies that the yakuza can no longer operate, even in a semiofficial fashion, in a way that is displaying their symbol outside of local offices.
They also cannot use bank accounts for illegitimate enterprises. Fines have been given for businesses that choose to willingly associate with yakuza.
These steps may be working to a degree, being that membership has been falling in the yakuza. There is currently a 50 year low in membership, and there has been a decrease in full time members, and an increase in half time members.
An estimate of an overall yearly income of 7 trillion yen is provided by American economists Adelstein, Jake Yakuza exclusion ordinances are local laws that aim to diminish the citizen to yakuza relationship, rather than the police vs the yakuza relationship.
Citizens are prohibited from making relations with the yakuza. It is noted that the set punishments remain somewhat unclear, even for the authorities.
There has been some suggestion that these ordinances violate freedom of expression Global vice: The expanding territory of the yakuza: An interview with Jake Adelstein 66 1 , In , during a crackdown on crime, one branch of the yakuza created a page exam for its members.
This was a tactical and strategic attempt to keep their members from getting in trouble with the law. This branch of yakuza decided this would be effective by showing the government that they were aware of the law, and working through legal channels.
As the yakuza continue to evolve in these modern times, they take on more sophisticated crimes such as massive stock manipulation and complicated fraud schemes.
The Japanese police are going to struggle to keep up. Police used to go have tea at the yakuza offices, chit-chat, and exchange information.
There was an exchange of knowledge between the two sides but now with the underground world having to be more creative with their crimes, that relationship has a short lifespan.
Anesthesia is never used. The person getting the tattoo feels every stab and poke and tap. The entire process is painstakingly slow because everything is done by hand.
A full-body tattoo could take years. Since the process is very painful, the Yakuza consider it a rite of passage and proof of their manliness and strength.
Some tattoo artists today use modern technology like electric tattoo machines and anesthesia. But some artists and clients still prefer tebori. Tattoos were not always associated with the Yakuza.
The tattoos of ancient Japanese were said to have spiritual significance. But during the Kofun era BCE , criminals were branded with tattoos.
Then during the Meiji era tattoos were outlawed. Soon, tattoos were firmly established in Japanese society as something that is used only by criminals or those who deal with illegal activities.
The prevailing negative connotation for tattoos is the reason why many onsen hot spring and sento public bathhouse do not allow tattooed people even foreigners to enter their establishments.
But once in a while, Yakuza members show off their tattoos. Also, every year during the Sanja Matsuri literally Three Shrine Festival; one of the three biggest Shinto festivals in Tokyo , they can proudly take off their clothes and wear only their fundoshi traditional Japanese undergarments and their tattoos as they take part in the festivities.
The tradition of yubitsume cutting off a finger is performed by a Yakuza member who fails to perform a duty or makes a blunder. The entire finger is not cut off at once.
At the start, only the tip of a finger is chopped off and given as an offering of atonement to the boss. Each blunder means more chopping until a whole finger is cut off.
In the past, losing a finger was very inconvenient to swordsmen. Losing a digit meant a weaker grip on a sword. This, in turn, meant that the person would need to rely more on his allies to defend him.
To pay his debt, he would do everything in his power to accomplish what his group would assign to him. The police would be able to spot them at a glance.
But those who still follow the tradition have found a way to disguise the result: prosthetic fingertips. According to police estimates, gang membership reached its highest level, of some ,, in the early s.
However, by the early 21st century their numbers had declined to approximately 80,, divided roughly evenly between regular members and associates.
The members are organized into hundreds of gangs, most of them affiliated under the umbrella of one of some 20 conglomerate gangs. Similar to that of the Italian Mafia , the yakuza hierarchy is reminiscent of a family.
The rigid hierarchy and discipline are usually matched by a right-wing ultranationalistic ideology.
Kobun traditionally take a blood oath of allegiance , and a member who breaks the yakuza code must show penance—historically through a ritual in which the kobun cuts off his little finger with a sword and presents it to his oyabun , though this practice has declined over time.
Over time the yakuza have shifted toward white-collar crime , relying more and more on bribery in lieu of violence, and indeed in the early 21st century they were one of the least murderous criminal groups in the world.